Energy Management in Microgrids: More Efficiency and Environment Friendly Systems

I would like to share some papers and works about energy management in microgrids, which aim to achieve maximum efficiency and minimum losses in the renewable energy based small microgrids.

  1. Development of optimization algorithms for the Leaf Community microgrid
  2. Energy Management in Microgrids: Algorithms and System
  3. The Optimization of Microgrids Operation through a Heuristic Energy Management Algorithm
  4. Computational optimization techniques applied to microgrids planning

These are most significant works that I have read up to date, I will update the list after completing reading other papers, soon.

Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm

Note: This page is created to make a list of new algorithms, so please visit the official page of the algorithm for more infirmation:


Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) is one of the most recently defined algorithms by Dervis Karaboga in 2005, motivated by the intelligent behavior of honey bees. It is as simple as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Differential Evolution (DE) algorithms, and uses only common control parameters such as colony size and maximum cycle number. ABC as an optimization tool, provides a population-based search procedure in which individuals called foods positions are modified by the artificial bees with time and the bee’s aim is to discover the places of food sources with high nectar amount and finally the one with the highest nectar. In ABC system, artificial bees fly around in a multidimensional search space and some (employed and onlooker bees) choose food sources depending on the experience of themselves and their nest mates, and adjust their positions. Some (scouts) fly and choose the food sources randomly without using experience. If the nectar amount of a new source is higher than that of the previous one in their memory, they memorize the new position and forget the previous one. Thus, ABC system combines local search methods, carried out by employed and onlooker bees, with global search methods, managed by onlookers and scouts, attempting to balance exploration and exploitation process.

Microstrip Patch Antenna Design

This is very approximate model to design a square shape microstrip antenna on PCB. The formulation are simplified, however, they may provide good results for most antenna engineering works.

Source:, by Ben Horwath


Now, you can try to design an antenna using the data which is given in last image.

2.4 Ghz Patch Antenna Design Using Advanced Design System (ADS)

Here, there is an example of how to design and simulate a patch antenna using Keysight Advanced Design System software.